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The Principle Of CNC Machining
Nov 28, 2018

(1) Machine tool body The machine tool body of CNC machine tool is similar to traditional machine tool. It consists of spindle transmission device, feed transmission device, bed, work table and auxiliary motion device, hydraulic and pneumatic system, lubrication system and cooling device. However, CNC machine tools have undergone great changes in overall layout, appearance modeling, transmission system, tool system structure and operating mechanism. The purpose of this change is to meet the requirements of CNC machine tools and give full play to the characteristics of CNC machine tools. .

(2) CNC unit The CNC unit is the core of the CNC machine tool. The CNC unit consists of three parts: input, processing and output of information. The CNC unit accepts the digitized information, and after decoding, interpolation, and logic processing by the control software and logic circuit of the numerical control device, various command information is output to the servo system, and the servo system drives the executing component to perform the feed motion.

(3) Input/Output Device The input device transmits various processing information to an external device of the computer. In the initial stage of CNC machine tools, the input device was a perforated paper tape, which has been eliminated, and then developed into a cassette tape, and then developed into portable hardware such as keyboard and disk, which greatly facilitates the information input work. Now the general DNC network communication serial communication The way to enter. The output refers to the internal working parameters of the output (including the normal parameters of the machine, the original parameters under the ideal working condition, the fault diagnosis parameters, etc.). Generally, these parameters are required to be recorded and saved in the working state of the machine. After working for a period of time, the output is compared with the original. The data is compared and compared to help determine whether the machine tool is working properly.

(4) Servo unit The servo unit is composed of a driver and a drive motor, and constitutes a feed system of the CNC machine tool with the execution components and mechanical transmission components on the machine tool. Its function is to convert the pulse signal from the numerical control device into the movement of the moving parts of the machine tool. For a stepper motor, each pulse signal turns the motor through an angle, which in turn drives the moving part of the machine to move a small distance. The actuators of each feed motion have corresponding servo drive systems, and the performance of the entire machine depends mainly on the servo system.

(5) The driving device drive device changes the amplified command signal into mechanical motion, drives the machine tool through a simple mechanical connecting part, makes the working table accurately position or strictly moves according to the prescribed trajectory, and finally processes the parts required by the drawing. Corresponding to the servo unit, the drive unit has a stepper motor, a DC servo motor, and an AC servo motor. The servo unit and the driving device can be collectively referred to as a servo driving system, which is a power device for the working of the machine tool. The command of the CNC device is implemented by the servo driving system. Therefore, the servo driving system is an important component of the numerical control machine tool.

(6) Programmable Controller (PC) is a microprocessor-based general-purpose automatic control device designed for industrial applications. Since the device was originally developed to solve the logic and switch control of the production equipment, it was called a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). When the PLC is used to control the sequential operation of the machine, it can also be called the Programmable Machine Controller (PMC). PLC has become an indispensable control device for CNC machine tools. The CNC and PLC coordinate and cooperate to complete the control of the CNC machine.

(7) Measurement feedback device The measurement device is also called a feedback component, including a grating, a rotary encoder, a laser range finder, a magnetic grid, and the like. Usually installed on the workbench or screw of the machine tool, it converts the actual displacement of the machine table into an electrical signal and feeds it back to the CNC device for the CNC device to generate an error signal compared with the command value to control the machine tool to move in the direction to eliminate the error. 


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